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Popular Marine Species

Blue-ringed Octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa

There are at least 10 species of the tiny blue-ringed octopus, which, ironically for its size, is the most deadly of all cephalopods (they can carry enough poison to kill 26 adults within minutes).

Blue-ringed octopuses, H. maculosa, can be found only in the temperate waters of southern Australia, from southern Western Australia to eastern Victoria at depths ranging from 0-50 m. H. lunulata though can be found in shallow reefs and tide pools from northern Australia to Japan, including Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Philippines, and Indonesia and as far west as Sri Lanka at depths ranging from 0-20 m. More...
Great White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias

Great white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias,
aka white sharks, white pointers, blue pointers, man-eaters, manila sharks, have, according to E.O. Wilson "...rightfully been called a top carnivore, a killing machine, the last free predator of man—the most frightening animal on earth."

Great white sharks are the largest known predatory fishes in the sea. They reach lengths of over 6.1 m and weigh up to 2,268 kg. They have conical snouts, pitch black eyes, heavy torpedo-shaped bodies, and a crescent-shaped, nearly equal-lobed tail. More...
orca (killer whale), Orcinus orca

Orcas (formerly known as killer whales), Orcinus orca,
are actually dolphins. They are the largest of the dolphin family (Family Delphinidae with about 32 species, including the dolphins, pygmy killer whales, Feresa attenuata, and false killer whales, Pseudorca crassiddens).

Next to humans, orca are the most widely distributed mammal. Orca inhabit all oceans of the world but are most numerous in the Arctic, the Antarctic and areas in nutrient-rich cold water upwellings. They have been sighted along the shores of Washington, Oregon, California, Baja California, and along the eastern coast of the United States. More...
Moon Jellyfish, Aurelia aurita

Moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita,
aka saucer jellies, moon jellies and common sea jellies, range between 5-40 cm in diameter. They can be recognized by their delicate and exquisite coloration, often in patterns of spots and streaks. Their behavior depends on a number of external conditions, in particular, food supply. Aurelia swim by pulsations of the bell-shaped upper part of the animal. Swimming mostly functions to keep the animal near the surface of the water rather than to make progress through the water. They swim horizontally, keeping the bell near the surface at all times. More...


This fascinating creature was discovered in 1998 off the coast of Sulawesi in Indonesia on the bottom of a muddy river mouth. For the next 2 years, scientists filmed nine different mimic octopuses, Thaumoctopus mimicus, impersonating sea snakes, lionfish, and flatfish—a strategy used to avoid predators. More...
Loggerheads Sea Turtles

Caretta caretta
are commonly called "loggerhead" sea turtles due to their overly large heads with a horny beak that is significantly thicker than in other sea turtles. This species is the largest hard-shelled turtle in the world (the leatherback sea turtle is the largest of all turtles). More...
Vampires Squids, Vampyroteuthis infernalis

Vampire squids, Vampyroteuthis infernalis,
which translates to "vampire squid from Hell", are the only known member of the Order Vampyromorphida, the seventh order in the Class Cephalopoda, who combines features from both octopodiformes (octopuses) and decapodiformes (squid, cuttlefishes, etc.) suggesting it may represent an ancestral line between the two groups. More...
Giant Squid, Architeuthis dux

Giant squids, Architeuthis dux,
of the family Architeuthidae, are possibly the largest known cephalopod, the largest known mollusk and, likely, the largest invertebrate ever known to exist (except for possibly the colossal squid, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni which may have a mantle length nearly twice the size of the giant squid!).

Sperm whales and sleeper sharks such as Somniosus pacificus are known predators of adult giant squid. Juveniles are preyed on by deep sea sharks and fishes. More...
Green Sea Turtles, Chelonia mydas

Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas,
are Chelonians — which means they have four legs and tough shells made of two parts which join at the sides.

Chelonians also have strong horny mouths with no teeth. There are three types of Chelonians — tortoises that live on land, terrapins that live in fresh water, and marine turtles that live in the sea. More...
Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus,
aka bluefin tuna, horse mackerel, northern bluefin tuna are regarded as one of the most highly evolved fish species and one of the most prized fish in danger of overfishing.

The Atlantic bluefin tuna is the largest member of the Scombridae Family (albacores, bonitos, mackerels, tunas). It is one of the largest bony fishes and can reach lengths of up to 3 m, although they are more commonly found from 0.5-2 m in length. Adult weights range from 136-680 kg, although the upper weight range is rare, especially now. More...
Horseshoe Crabs, Limulus polyphemus

Horseshoe Crabs, Limulus polyphemus,
were originally classified as a crab erroneously. They are actually a distant relative of crustaceans, and are more closely related to arachnids such as spiders, scorpions and ticks. Although they look prehistoric, and ancient relatives of Limulus polyphemus were present 520 million years ago as evidenced by fossils, this species has only been around for about 20 million years which is not enough time to consider it a "living fossil" as they are sometimes called. More...
Sea Lampreys, Petromyzon marinus

Sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus
, aka great sea lampreys, lake lampreys, lampreys, or lamprey eels, have a distinctive eel-like body, but unlike the eel, their skeletons are made of cartilage rather than bone. Sea lampreys grow up to 1.2 m in length, weighing up to 2.5 kg. They are easily identified by the wide oral disc ('sucker') in place of their mouth, which is filled with many small teeth arranged in circular rows. Their color varies from gray to blue black, graduating to a silver-white shade underneath. They have no paired fins, but possess single dorsal and ventral finfolds. The sea lamprey is scaleless and possesses a pair of functional eyes and seven gill openings. More...
Frilled sharks, Chlamydoselachus anguineus

Frilled sharks, Chlamydoselachus anguineus
, aka frill sharks, frill-gilled sharks, Greenland sharks, scaffold sharks, and silk sharks are members of the most ancient frill and cow sharks order, Hexanchiformes. Hexanchiform sharks have a single dorsal fin, either six or seven gill slits (versus the 5 found in all other existing sharks), and no nictitating membranes (protective third eyelids). The frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, is currently one of only two known species of frilled sharks. The southern African frill shark, C. africana, was recently discovered (2009) off southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa. More...
Harp Seals, Pagophilus groenlandicus

Harp seals, Pagophilus groenlandicus,
get their common name from the harp-shaped pattern on the dorsal side and flanks of adult seals. Their Latin name translates to "ice-loving seal of Greenland."

Harp seals have a varied diet of fish such as capelin, polar and Arctic cod, herring, sculpin, Greenland halibut, redfish, and plaice. They also consume crustaceans such as amphipods, euphausids (krill), and decapods (shrimps and prawns). More...
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae

Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae,
like all rorquals (blue whales, Bryde's whales, fin whales, minke whales, and sei whales) are long, slender whales that are much more streamlined than other large whales.

Their scientific name means "giant wings", which refers to their large front flippers that can reach a length of 4.6 m — about one-third of the animal's entire body length. The body is black on the dorsal (upper) side, and mottled black and white on the ventral (under) side. More...
Great Hammerhead Sharks, Sphyrna mokarran

Great hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna mokarran,
can easily be confused with smooth hammerheads, Sphyrna zygaena, because of their similar size. Great hammerheads, however, are the largest of the 10 species of hammerhead sharks and is reported to reach up to 6.1 m in length and weigh up to 449.5 kg. More...
Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

The amazing European or common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, reaches a maximum mantle length of 45 cm, although one individual has been recorded at 60 cm. The mantle (main body region behind the eyes) houses the cuttlebone, reproductive organs, and digestive organs. More...
Colossal Squids, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni

Colossal squids, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni,
aka Antarctic cranch squids, are one of the largest and most elusive and mysterious of the cephalopods. These massive squids are reported to measure up to 14 m in total length with a mantle length of about 2-4 m. More...
Leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea,
aka leathery turtle, luth and trunkback turtle, are the largest of the sea turtles reaching up to 2.4 m in length and weighing 227-907 kg. Their flippers span an average of 2.7 m from the tip to tip. The leatherback can dive to great depths. Turtles equipped with depth recorders dove to over 1,000 m deep. This depth exceeds that reported for any air-breathing vertebrate with the possible exceptions of sperm whales and elephant seals. The shallowest dives occurred at dusk and the deepest at dawn. These leatherbacks were probably feeding on jellyfish that concentrate below 600 m during the day and move into surface waters at dusk. The turtles dove almost continuously with only brief intervals at the surface to breathe. More...
Saltwater Crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus

Saltwater crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus,
aka salties or saltwater crocs, are the largest living reptiles. Adult males can reach 6-7 m and weigh between 1,000-1,200 kg. Females are much smaller and do not generally exceed 3 m. Saltwater crocodiles have a heavy set jaw with between 64-68 teeth and are considered very intelligent and sophisticated animals. They communicate by barks and are thought to display four different calls, including a high-pitched distress call performed by juveniles in a series of short barks. Threat calls consist of a hissing sound made at intruders. The hatching call is performed by newborns as a high-pitched short bark, and finally, the courtship bellow is heard as a long, low growl. More...
Goblin sharks, Mitsukurina owstoni

Goblin sharks, Mitsukurina owstoni
, are bizarre, sinister-looking creatures (mainly after they die). Growing to a length of over 3.8 m, they have a soft, flabby body, pinkish-gray color, and a peculiar, blade-like snout overhanging long, highly protrudable jaws with slender, fang-like teeth. The jaws are highly specialized to rapidly extend and quickly snap up small prey. The goblin shark has long, sharp teeth in the front of its jaws used to capture prey; the upper teeth are slightly longer than the lower teeth. Their teeth in the back of their mouth are smaller and used to crush prey. As with other sharks, the teeth are located in rows that rotate into use as needed. More...
Hawksbill sea turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata

Hawksbill sea turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata,
are beautiful small to medium-sized sea turtles that take their species name (imbricata) from the overlapping plates on their upper shell. Hawksbills get their common name from the shape of its hooked jaw. They reach a length of about 0.62-1.14 m.

In the U.S. Caribbean, nesting females average about 0.62-0.94 m in straight carapace length. Weight is typically to 80 kg in the wider Caribbean, with a record weight of 127 kg. Hatchlings average about 42 mm straight carapace length and range in weight from 13.5-19.5 g. More...
Finned Deep-sea Octopuses, Grimpoteuthis spp.

Finned deep-sea octopuses, of the genus Grimpoteuthis
, consist of about 14 known species and are poorly known. All octopuses in the genus Grimpoteuthis are nicknamed "dumbo octopuses," due to the ear-like fins that protrude from the sides of their mantles just above their eyes which resemble the elephant ears of the Disney character Dumbo. More...
Marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus

Marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus
, are the world's only sea-going lizards and are a gray to black iguana with pyramid-shaped dorsal (upper) scales. They are distinguished from land iguanas by their short, blunt snouts and slightly laterally compressed tail which efficiently moves this lizard along the surface or beneath the water. Juveniles have a light stripe along the dorsal side. The long, sharp, recurved claws permit the lizard to hold fast to the lava in heavy seas or when submerged.

The average length of an adult male is approximately 1.3 m and an adult female is approximately 0.6 m in length. The weight of these iguanas range between 0.5-1.5 kg (Berry 1984). More...
Monodon monoceros

Narwhals, Monodon monoceros
, are a gregarious species commonly found in groups or "pods" of sometimes up to 20 individuals, but most often in groups of 3-8, which are often segregated by sex. During the migratory season, smaller groups combine with other groups to form large herds. Narwhals measure 3.6-6.2 m in body length (average 4.7 m in males, 4 m in females) pectoral fins measure 30-40 cm tip to tip, and width of the tail flukes is 1-1.2 m. Compared to other cetaceans, narwhals have a small head, blunt snout, short rounded flippers, and convex rather than concave tail flukes. Adult narwhals are pale gray or light brown on the dorsal side, white on the ventral side, some with spotted patterns. More...
Blacktip Reef Sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus

Blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus
, are small sharks measuring up to 1.8 m with short, bluntly-rounded snouts, oval eyes, and narrow-cusped teeth. They have 2 dorsal fins and no interdorsal ridges. Juveniles (<70 cm) are yellow-brown on their dorsal (upper) sides, white on their ventral (under) sides; adults are brownish-gray and white, respectively. All their fins have conspicuous black or dark brown tips, and posterior (rear) dark edges on their pectoral fins and their upper lobe of their caudal (tail) fins. Maximum weight: 24 kg; frequents depth ranges from the surface to 75 m. More...
Enhydra lutris

Sea otters, Enhydra lutris
, are the largest member of the Family Mustelidae (~70 species of river otters, skunks, weasels, badgers, etc.) and are the smallest marine mammal in North America. Males weigh 22-45 kg and are 1.2-1.5 m in length. Females are slightly smaller, weighing 14-33 kg and measuring 1-1.4 m in length. The tail comprises less than a third of the body length.

The pelage (covering, or coat, of a mammal, whether of wool, fur, or hair) is brown or reddish brown. Sea otter fur is the densest of all mammals with 100,000-400,000 hairs/sq cm (that's up to one million hairs per square inch!) whereas humans only have 20,000 hairs on their whole head! More...
tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier

Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier,
are one of the largest sharks in the world. Adults commonly reach lengths of 3.3-4.3 m and weigh between 385-635 kg (view a 4.3 m, 544 kg tiger shark caught in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 1966).

Tiger sharks likely have the widest variety in their diet out of all shark species. These sharks are predatory animals primarily known for their voracious appetites. They seem to be indiscriminate in their food selection and are known to eat: fishes, other sharks, sea turtles, mollusks, and seabirds. They are also known scavengers. More...
Blue Whales, Balaenoptera musculus

Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus,
like all rorquals (Bryde's whales, fin whales, humpback whales, minke whales, and sei whales), are long, slender whales that are much more streamlined than other large whales.

The blue whale is the largest mammal, possibly the largest animal, to ever inhabit Planet Ocean. An average blue whale is between 23-24.5 m long, and weighs about 99,800 kg, and females are even larger than males of the same age, the largest may weigh as much as 136,000 kg! The body is long, somewhat tapered, and streamlined, with the head making up less than one-fourth of its total body length. More...

Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, are the largest of the beaked dolphins weighing in at 150-200 kg. Head and body length is 175-400 cm, with males being much larger than females. Pectoral fin length is 30-50 cm, and dorsal fin height is approximately 23 cm.

Protected in the U.S. under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, taking of dolphins is only allowed with a special permit. Because of commercial fishing operations dating back to the late 1800s, bottlenose dolphin numbers were drastically reduced by the turn of the century. The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service estimated that there were 3,000 to 10,000 bottlenose dolphins off the east coast of the United States in 1981. More...
Mako Sharks, Isurus sp.

Mako Sharks, Isurus oxyrinchus,
aka makos, shortfins, short-finned makos, blue pointers, mackerel sharks, blue dynamites, bonitos, spriglios, paloma—are truly beautiful animals. They are well-adapted and active pelagic sharks. Like its cousin, the great white, they keep their body temperature warmer than the surrounding water using a high metabolic rate and heat-exchange system. They are legendary swimmmers reaching sustained speeds of 35 kph (with bursts to over 80 kph) and have been known to travel over 2,092 km in little over a month.

Males mature at around 2 m while females mature at about 2.6 m with maximum lengths of 4 m and max weights of over 500 kg. More...
Swordfishes, Xiphias gladius

Swordfishes, Xiphias gladius,
aka broadbills, are named for their long "bill" and, although they resemble members of the billfish Family Istiophoridae, they are actually the sole member of the Xiphiidae family. The bill of the swordfish is longer than other billfishes and unlike other billfishes, swordfishes do not have teeth in their jaws, nor do mature swordfish have scales.

Swordfish reach a maximum length of about 4.5 m and a maximum weight of 650 kg. Females are typically larger than males. On average, swordfish caught by commercial fisheries in the Pacific, where the largest swordfish are found, measure an average of 1.2-1.9 m. Atlantic swordfish reach about 320 kg in weight and adult swordfish in the Mediterranean typically weight less than 230 kg. More...
Leafy sea dragons, Phycodurus eques

Leafy sea dragons, Phycodurus eques,
aka leafy seadragon or Glauert's seadragon, get their common names from the amazing leaf-like appendages on their bodies. The leafy sea dragon has more of the leaf-like appendages on the body than the closely-related weedy sea dragon. Both species resemble floating pieces of seaweed which makes them difficult for predators to find in their natural habitat. They reach a total length of 35 cm. More...
Hermodice carunculata

Bearded fireworms, Hermodice carunculata
, are a type of bristleworm of the fireworm Family Amphinomidae. These beautiful flattened segmented worms, reaching 35.6 cm (typically 7-10 cm) in length, with groups of white bristles along each side. The bristles are hollow, venom-filled chaeta which easily penetrate flesh and then break off if this worm is handled. They produce an intense burning irritation in the area of contact, hence the common name of the species. When disturbed, the worm flares out the bristles so they are more exposed. More...

Inia geoffrensis


Amazon river dolphins, Inia geoffrensis, aka boutu, boto, and bufeo are one of the few species of fresh water dolphins and the most well-known river dolphin. They are a medium size dolphin with long beaks, a stocky body, and prominent forehead. Males measure about 2.5 m in length; females average 1.8 m with a maximum length of 2.4 m. Amazon river dolphins weight up to 160 kg. They have long beaks with 24-34 conical and molar-like teeth. The conical teeth in the front of the mouth are used for holding prey, the molars in the rear of the mouth are used to grind food before swallowing. A characteristic unique to the Amazon river dolphin is stiff hairs on the beak; the hairs are a sensory organ that help sense prey in muddy river bottoms. More...
Spirobranchus giganteus

Christmas tree worms, Spirobranchus giganteus
, are Christmas tree-shaped serpulid tube-dwelling worms with magnificent twin spirals of plumes used for feeding and respiration. These cone-shaped worms are one of the most widely recognized sedentary polychaete worms. They come in many colors including orange, yellow, blue, and white and, though they are small with an average 3.8 cm in span, they are easily spotted due to their shape, beauty, and color. The colorful plumes, or tentacles, are used for passive feeding on suspended food particles and plankton in the water. Christmas tree worms are very sensitive to disturbances and will rapidly retract into their burrows at the slightest touch or passing shadow. More...
Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus

Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus,
aka Florida spiny lobsters, grow to about 60 cm in length. Like the other 20 members of the genus Panulirus, such as the Australian, California, and Chinese spiny lobsters, they lack the large pinching claws of their Maine lobster relatives. Their primary defense are the spines that cover its shell, which help protect the lobster from predators. More...
Cookiecutter sharks, Isistius brasiliensis

Cookiecutter sharks, Isistius brasiliensis
, aka cookie-cutter shark, smalltooth cookiecutter shark or cigar shark, are small, deepwater sharks named for the cookie-shaped wounds they leave on larger fish and marine mammals. Cookiecutters have cylindrical bodyies that reach up to 50 cm in length. They have conical snouts and 2 low spineless dorsal fins positioned at the posterior (rear) end of their bodies. They are dark brown to black on their dorsal (upper) side, lighter ventrally (below), and possess a dark collar around their gills. The entire ventral surface, with the exception of their dark collar, is covered in a dense network of tiny photophores which emit a greenish glow (bioluminescence). More...
Sperm Whales, Physeter catodon

Sperm whales, Physeter catodon,
aka the giant sperm whales, may reach 20.5 m (males) in length while females can reach 12 m (sexually dimorphic). Newborn calves measure about 4 m and are about 1/25 the weight of females. The enormous (up to 1/3 of total body length), box-like head of Physeter catodon sets it apart from all other species. The sperm whale has the largest of mammalian brains, both in proportion to its body and in sheer mass (~9 kg). Their blowhole is S-shaped and positioned on the left side of the head. The gullet of Physeter catodon is the largest among cetaceans; it is in fact the only gullet large enough to swallow a human. More...
Galapagos penguins, Spheniscus mendiculus

Yes, penguins do exist on the equator! Galapagos penguins, Spheniscus mendiculus, are the most northerly occurring of all the penguins (third smallest of the world's 17 or so penguin species as well). They stand 40-45 cm tall and weigh 1.6-2.5 kg. Galapagos penguins have a thin white band that runs under their chin and a black upside down horseshoe shape around their belly. The Galapagos penguin may look like the magellanic penguin but they are smaller and their black markings on their belly are thinner. They are found only around the Galapagos and Isabela Islands just north of the Equator. More...
Spotted eagle rays, Aetobatus narinari

Spotted eagle rays, Aetobatus narinari
, aka white-spotted eagle ray, bonnetray, and maylan, grow to at least 3.5 m disc width and 9 m total length and have a recorded maximum weight of 230 kg. Current research on this species may reveal that what is being called the white-spotted eagle ray may in fact be several species. The spotted eagle ray has a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth. Each tooth is a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band. They usually have numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; with white below. Long whip-like tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. More...
Whale Shark

Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus,
are the biggest sharks and the biggest fishes in the ocean. They are not whales nor are they dangerous to humans (like nearly all sharks). More...
Basking Sharks, Cetorhinus maximus

Basking sharks, Cetorhinus maximus,
are recognized by their huge sizes, conical snouts, sub-terminal mouthes, extremely large gill slits, dark bristle-like gill rakers inside the gills (present most of the year), strong caudal keels and large lunate (curved) tails. Basking sharks have numerous, small teeth. Their bodies are mottled gray/brown to slate-gray or black in color, sometimes with lighter patches on the dorsal side. Two albino basking sharks from the North Atlantic have been recorded. It is the second largest fish, only surpassed by the whale shark. Their average size is 6.7-8.8 m. The largest measured basking shark was 9.75 m, and a 9.14 m long individual was recorded that weighed 3,900 kg. There are also unconfirmed reports of basking sharks up to 13.7 m long. More...

Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri

The scientific name for emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri, is made up of Aptenodytes, which means "featherless diver" and forsteri, for J. R. Forster, a naturalist and colleague of Captain Cook in the 18th century who was one of first to describe penguins. More...

Lugworms, Arenicola marine

Lugworms, Arenicola marine, also known as rock worms and the blow lug, are often confused with a similar species — the black lug, A. defodiens. Lugworms are burrow-dwelling annelid worms and can reach densities as high as 100-150 per square meter in certain areas. They can make up to 30% of the biomass of an average sandy beach, making them a very important part of the food web in their habitat. They bioturbate (re-work, re-oxygenate) the sand and serve as a food source for a wide variety of other animals such as flatfish and birds. Lugworms also have a clever way to avoid being eaten — the part of them which is usually exposed to predation (the tail) can be regrown if lost (like some lizards). More...
Leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata

Leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata
, are members of the Houndsharks Family, Triakidae. Zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, are commonly confused with leopard sharks and share the same common name in Australia and SE Asia. Leopard sharks have short, broadly-rounded snouts, their first dorsal fins are moderately large and their second dorsal fin is nearly as large as the first one (height is about 3/4 of the first dorsal fin) and their anal fins are much smaller than their second dorsal fins. Their pectoral fins are broadly triangular and they have very conspicuous dark saddles and dots on their bodies. Their average size is between 1.2-1.5 m and their maximum total length is about 1.8 m. Leopard sharks can weigh up to 18.4 kg and live as long as 30 years. More...
Caribbean reef octopuses, Octopus briareus

Caribbean reef octopuses, Octopus briareus
, aka reef octopus, are characterized by their distinctive blue-green colors with occasional mottled-brown markings. Like other octopus species, Caribbean reef octopuses are typically solitary and are able to quickly change color using specialized cells in their skin known as chromatophores. These amazing cephalopods have been measured to 12 cm (mantle length) with arms to at least 60 cm. They can weigh up to 1.5 kg. More...
Spotted Wobbegong Sharks, Orectolobus maculatus

Spotted wobbegong sharks, Orectolobus maculatus,
reach a maximum length of 3.2 m with the average size of adult males between 1.5-1.8 m. These amazing sharks are mottled yellow-green or brown in color with saddle- and O-shaped markings. Spotted wobbegongs, like other wobbegong species, have nasal barbels and hanging tassels on and around their head and body. Other species of wobbegongs are similar in appearance, however, the patterns of spotted wobbegongs are specific to this species and aid in their superb camouflage among the reefs in the eastern Indian Ocean, off eastern Queensland and southern Australia, and possibly off southern Japan and in the South China Sea. More...
Giant Octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini

Some of the world's largest and smallest octopuses are found off the coasts of the United States. The second largest is the giant octopus, aka North Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, which may grow to over 9 m in length and weigh more than 45 kg. The giant octopus has a reddish-brown body, called the mantle, plus four pairs of arms, measuring on average about 4.9 m long. The record weight for a giant octopus is 272 kg, but most weigh about 23-41 kg. Newly hatched young are the size of a grain of rice. Octopuses have the most complex brain of the invertebrates (animals without backbones). Like vertebrates, they also have long term and short-term memories. Octopuses learn to solve problems by trial-and-error and experience. More...
Bull Sharks, Carcharhinus leucas

Bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas,
aka zambezi, ganges (often confused with the Ganges river shark, Glyphis gangeticus), ground shark, river shark, freshwater whaler, estuary whaler, shovelnose, slipway grey, and swan river whaler, are massive and fearsome shark with a short, broad, blunt snout, small eyes, and triangular saw-edged upper teeth. More...

Georgia Aquarium Announces Appeal Decision

"Georgia Aquarium has decided not to appeal the decision handed down by Judge Totenberg. We firmly disagree with the Judge's decision, but the extended appeal process would add to an already lengthy series of legal proceedings, which would not be in the best interest of the animals in Russia."

Scientists say a plague of sea stars is devastating Pacific coral reefs

As if the world's coral reefs didn't have enough problems — killer rising ocean temperatures, crazy bleaching events and oil slicks comprised of sunscreen from sunbathers that denude them, they are now under attack by hordes of thorny sea creatures.

Japan Blocks 4 out of 5 Shark Conservation Proposals at Atlantic Tuna Meeting

Fishing nations at the annual meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) have once again failed to adopt scientific advice and best practices to safeguard several species of oceanic sharks.

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